Pages

Support The Stories!


Do you like these stories?
Please help me to continue bringing them to you.
A contribution, no matter how small will help.

https://www.paypal.me/LizChater




Sunday, 12 May 2019

Joakim Gregory Nicholas Pogose: Founder of the Pogose School, Dacca


The Pogose School in Dhaka is a familiar landmark in the city. What is perhaps unfamiliar to the Armenian Diaspora around the world is that it was opened in 1848 by local Armenian Joakim Gregory Nicholas Pogose. 

The Pogose School, Dhaka. Founding date.

His Armenian family network extended into Calcutta as well as Dacca. His parents were Gregory Nicholas Pogose and Elizabeth née Sarkies. Through his mother’s family line one can see a deep rooted philanthropic trace, His great grandfather, Sarkies Ter Johannes, was co-founder of Johannes Sarkies & Co., and during Ter Johannes’s lifetime contributed enormously to the poor, destitute and needy. His grave inscription reflects: “… he was charitable to the homeless and distributed money bountifully.”


Joakim Pogose of Dacca married a second cousin, Mariam née  Avdall of Calcutta[1]. The influence of personal advancement through education was something she was already very familiar with. The significance of her well-regarded father, Johannes Avdall, the headmaster of the Armenian College & Philanthropic Academy in Calcutta from 1825 for 45 years[2], would have only made Joakim even more determined to create a school in Dacca.  


What better mentor than his own father-in-law, a leading educationalist of his time? Imagine if you will, the conversations these two would have had, no doubt discussions on education and the complexities of setting up a school, and how Joakim could learn from the first 25 years of the Armenian College’s existence. Poignantly, In Johannes Avdall’s will, he left a small legacy to: “….my esteemed son-in-law Joakim G.N. Pogose…..”.  Avdall was the perfect motivator for the forwarding thinking Joakim, emulating his father-in-law, Joakim became the headmaster of his own establishment. Knowing his extended Armenian family were already making a significant difference through education in one part of India, he realised it was within his gift to create a similar institution in Dacca, this was simply inspiring for Joakim. The determination and drive by Armenians in India to learn, develop and progress is something the early settlers recognized to be very important. Joakim was no different, and was in the fortunate position to be able to financially support his dream.

In 1856 Joakim and his cousin Nicholas Peter Pogose were on the local and managing committees of Government Colleges and School for Dacca.[3]
 
In April 1859 Joakim, along with his wife Mary and their 4 sons travelled from Dacca, via Calcutta to England. Also making this journey were other Armenians from Calcutta; Master Malchus, Mr. and Mrs and Master Paul and their three children (and two servants); and Master Apcar. It may be that the Pogose’s were acting as guardians on the voyage for Master Apcar[4]. The vessel docked in Southampton and the Pogoses continued their journey to London. The 1861 census shows the family at 26 Queen’s Terrace, Paddington, in temporary boarding house accommodation.  Education for his own children was paramount in Joakim’s mind and although by 1862 he and Mary were by now back in Dacca, their second son, John Avdall Pogose was successful in gaining prizes in English, Maths and Classics at Kings College School in London[5][6], an institution run in conjunction with St. Marylebone and All Souls’ Grammar School, a most prestigious institution. The Pogose name regularly featured in the prize list for the school for several years after this. Meanwhile John Avdall Pogose’s brother, Nicholas Joakim Pogose was elected to the ‘Eton Club’ in October 1869[7], indicating this is where he continued his education until he went to Oxford. 

Meanwhile in Dacca, Joakim (also known as J.G.N.) Pogose was amongst many things, an active Freemason. In recognition of his dedication to the craft, he was presented with as solid gold Past Master’s jewel. Reported in the Indian Freemason’s Friend as follows: 

“Lodge Good Hope – The brethren met emergently on Wednesday the 9th September [1863]……the proceedings were rendered most gratifying by the ceremony which next took place, of presenting to Bro. J.G.N. Pogose, P.M. of the lodge, in a suitable and graceful speech from the E., - besides a splendid collar and apron – a very handsome solid gold P.M.’s jewel, most tastefully executed with buckle and holder, ribbon and case complete, having on a blue ground, a square, and the diagram of the 47th proposition, encircled with a neatly corded vine and cassia border, and surmount with a square and compasses supporting a double Triangle, richly embossed and chased, bearing on the inverse the following inscription: 

“Presented by the Brethren of Lodge Good Hope (No. 1058), Dacca, to W.Bro. J.G.N. Pogose, as a token of fraternal regard, and in acknowledgement of his valuable services to the lodge, particularly whilst W.M. in 1861.” 

And around the obverse: “Lodge Good Hope (No. 1058).” The gift was acknowledged by Bro. Pogose in the most thankful and appropriate terms, and with feelings of the warmest gratitude.”

By 1871 a new set of Dacca Pogose boys were now at St. Marylebone and All Souls’ school. The census for that year indicates brothers, John Nicholas Pogose, Joakim Nicholas Pogose and Carapiet Nicholas Pogose had been enrolled as boarders, following in the footsteps of their elder cousins.  These boys were the sons of Nicholas Peter Pogose[8] (cousin of Joakim Gregory Nicholas Pogose) and his wife Mariam nee Sarkies. Nicholas Peter Pogose and his wife had sailed from Calcutta in October 1869 on the ‘Mongolia’ with three children, treading a well worn educational path set by Pogose School founder cousin Joakim Gregory Nicholas Pogose and his family.

Joakim, who by now was a familiar parental face to the teaching faculty at St. Marylebone and All Souls’ School, was one of a number of parents who presented prizes for the students’ examination success. Joakim presented the Geography 1st prize to the value of 2 guineas; the English Essay Prize to the value of 1 guinea; the Euclid prize to the value of 1 guinea; the Note prize to the value of 1 guinea, (this was for the best note written by any boy under the age of twelve); and two Pogose brother’s gained certificates of merit in German[9]. Incidentally, also at this school were two boys named Malchus and Apcar and it is very likely these are the same children who came to England with the (JGN) Pogoses in 1859.

By December 1873 J.G.N. Pogose had been appointed to the Mitford Hospital Committee[10] in Dacca, along with fellow Armenian Marcar David who ran a successful jute business in the city. These two community driven individuals can often be seen trying to make a positive difference by contributing and helping the local Dacca population.

Family tree chart showing the family network of the Pogose School founder, Joakim Gregory Nicholas Pogose.
Joakim Pogose’s grandfather, Nicholas Marcar Pogose was a man of enormous wealth in Dacca, having inherited some of it from his own father Marcar Pogose (sometimes also known as Poghos Marcar). 

Grave of Marcar Pogose

In Dacca, as a Zamandar Nicholas Marcar Pogose was able to build an impressive and substantial property and land portfolio of his own, and it is this combined early wealth that enabled Joakim Gregory Nicholas Pogose to be in a position to open the Pogose School in the city.

The Estate Administration notice of Marcar Pogose was granted to his son Nicholas Marcar in 1789

However, it wasn’t just his own school that interested him. Joakim actively supported a visiting women’s rights campaigner from England who was focused on education for women and reform. Mary Carpenter dedicated her life to promoting female education and better standards of living around the world.  Having already travelled to India a number of times, she returned once more in 1875, landing in Dacca where her hosts, Joakim and his wife Mary made her most welcome[11] [12]

Mary Carpenter was a guest of Joakim G.N. Pogose and his wife Mary in Dacca. Image: Public domain

During her time in Dacca, and fully supported by the Pogose’s, Mary Carpenter gave numerous talks about female education, infant training systems, reformatories, sanitation, industrial schools and providing better homes for the poor. She visited local jails to encourage better conditions for prisoners. She suggested merging the local branch of the National Indian Association (originally established by her) with the local Philanthropic Society, thus giving further strength to the purpose of female education. In her speech at the farewell reception held by Joakim and Mary Pogose, she said: “…sanitation is a subject which you will do well to take up; do not oppose Government in its efforts in this city to make sanitary improvements; you stand in very great need of them; you will improve in physique if you live more healthily…..”

On the evening of Tuesday 28th December 1875 her Pogose hosts bade her farewell. They were joined at the reception at the Pogose’s well appointed home by a number of local native gentlemen, and Mary Pogose was just one of three local females to attend the occasion. Clearly, gender equality was still a distant dream for such gatherings.  In thanking everyone, and particularly Mary Pogose, Miss Carpenter said: “…it seems but yesterday that Mrs. Pogose led me into my chamber, nicely decorated with evergreens and fitted up for my comfort.  I am very happy that I came to see you.” Eighteen months later Mary Carpenter passed away at her home in Bristol, England, but her legacy continued long after her demise.

In 1876 Joakim and his cousin Nicholas Peter Pogose were honorary magistrates in Dacca together.[13]

The grave of Joakim Gregory Nicholas Pogose, Nardina Cemetery, Dhaka. Image courtesy of Rajib Rj.
 Joakim died on 3rd December 1876 just two months after his fourth son Paul who had passed away In October of that year at just 22 years of age. 

The grave of Paul Pogose, Narinda Cemetery, Dhaka. Image courtesy of Rajib Rj.
 
By the end of this tumultuous year Mary Pogose had buried a son and a husband. She meticulously and carefully created identical tombstones for them; they are placed only yards apart in the Narinda Cemetery, Dhaka. Tragically, Mary and Joakim had already buried their 3rd son, Nicholas in 1872 who had died in St. Leonard’s, in Sussex of typhoid. Initially Nicholas had been buried in Kensal Green cemetery in London, but, was re-interred at St. Sepulchres, Cemetery, Oxford close to where he had studied.

Mary’s life continued to be difficult, her remaining two sons, Gregory and John became “mentally incapacitated”. Both initially seemed to have promising careers in front of them, but by 1893 she was providing care and supporting them both financially. Concerned about their financial future after she died, Mary ensured there was sufficient money and physical support for both of them in her will. Mary died in Calcutta in March 1893 and is buried in the Holy Nazareth Armenian Church in the city.

Grave of J.G.N. Pogose's wife, Mary. Armenian Holy Church of Nazareth, Calcutta. Image courtesy of Liz Chater's private archive.

Extract from the will of Nicholas Marcar Pogose. Showing last page written in Bengali and first page written in English. BL: L/AG/29/47/153


Page 1 of the inventory and accounts of the estate of Nicholas Marcar Pogose lists a small selection of the houses and lands he owned at the time of his death. BL: L/AG/34/27/96/181


Today, there are no living descendants of the Pogose School founder JGN Pogose and his wife Mary. The school continues to educate students in Dhaka. Pogose’s father-in-law’s school in Kolkata, The Armenian College & Philanthropic Academy also continues to thrive. It will be celebrating its 200 year anniversary in 2020.

A less successful cousin, Nicholas Peter Pogose, was briefly the proprietor of the Dhaka Daily News, as well as a Warden of the Armenian Church Dhaka, but during his lifetime was declared hopelessly insolvent.  Nicholas’s son Peter Nicholas Pogose and his wife Eugenie nee Manook seem to spend the majority of their lives playing catch-up and trying to avoid their creditors.  Peter was embroiled in a spectacular court case for fraud, eventually being found guilty.  You can read the full story as part of the Bangladesh Armenian Heritage Project stories here



[1] Armenian Church Calcutta Marriage Register No. 201
[2] Armenians in India from the Earliest Time to the Present Day P.448 + 449
[3] General Report on Public Instruction in the Lower provinces of the Bengal Presidency for 1855-56
[4] Newspaper: Homeward Mail from India, China and the East 13 April 1859
[5] Newspaper: The Daily News 25 July 1862, p.5
[6] Newspaper: The Borough of Marylebone Mercury 2 August 1862.
[7] The Eton College Chronicle 11 November 1869 p.514
[8] There is a separate story for Nicholas Peter Pogose and his family
[9] Newspaper: The Borough of Marylebone Mercury 29 July 1871
[10] Homeward Mail from India, China and the East 22 December 1873
[11] Journal of The National Indian Association, IN AID OF SOCIAL PROGRESS IN INDIA. No. 61. January 1876, p.68.
[12] Mary Carpenter arrived in Dacca in the second week of December. It was noted in ‘The Indian Mirror’ of 28th November 1875 that she would be the guest of Mr. J. Pogose.
[13] Bengal Directory 1876 p.128

Peter Nicholas Pogose the less successful cousin


Not all the Pogose’s were successful in life. Peter Nicholas Pogose had to learn at a very young age to live by his wits and words. He never really had the same flourish as his more successful cousin Joakim Gregory Nicholas Pogose the Pogose School founder. 

In 1867 Peter's father Nicholas was briefly one of four proprietors of the “Dhaka Daily News”, a Planter’s Journal issued weekly. Only 225 copies were printed and distributed. In 1876[1]  he was also a Warden of the Armenian Church Dhaka, but during his lifetime was declared “hopelessly insolvent”. Nicholas’s son Peter Nicholas Pogose and his wife Eugenie née Manook seem to spend the majority of their lives playing catch-up and trying to avoid their creditors. Peter was embroiled in a spectacular court case for fraud, eventually being found guilty.

In 1884 Peter Nicholas Pogose, (son of Nicholas Peter Pogose[2] and Mary née  Sarkies, and great grandson of Nicholas Marcar Pogose)[3], was embroiled in a sensational court case of fraud where it was alleged he used his marriage settlement to his wife (who was a minor) to deliberately avoid paying his ever growing and impatient creditors by ensuring his finances had been transferred in to his wife’s name, Eugene née Manook. 

In June 1877 the Delhi and London Bank obtained a decree against him for a sum of Rs 11,076. Later that month Pogose entered into an agreement with the Bank Manager to pay them Rs 2,000 quarterly until the debt, including interest had been cleared. However, he dragged his feet in making payments and in August 1877 wrote to the Bank claiming he was having trouble finding the first instalment and asked for their patience in the matter until January 1878 when he indicated he would be in a position to pay them. Between September 1877 and February 1878 he managed to find Rs 4,000 towards his debt. After the last payment on the 25th February of a measly Rs 490, Peter Pogose and his wife immediately left Dacca and sailed for England, no further payments were made. The Bank’s patience waning, they applied to the Mymensingh Court for an execution of an attachment to his properties in that district. In June 1880 Pogose put in a claim stating that on the 5th November 1877, the day prior to his marriage to Eugene Manook he has entered into an ante-nuptial settlement in which his properties in Mymensingh were part of that agreement [a modern day pre-nup] with her, and these properties rested with Eugene for her life, and after her death to her children by him.  Astutely, Pogose had ensured a clause in the marriage settlement that stated his wife was to support him for his lifetime, and concluded “…and that henceforth all my rights to the same shall cease to exist….” In June 1878 he took out a certificate to manage these properties on behalf of his wife. The courts could see he was trying to circumnavigate his financial situation, and dismissed this in December 1880 where it was stated that the settlement was “….no more than a mere ostensible transfer, carrying with it no change of ownership….” Further action was initiated by Eugene to declare her interest in the properties but it was concluded that the whole process had been set up with a view to “defraud the creditors of P.N. Pogose, and that the judgement-debtor, his father-in-law, Mr. Manook and friends had collusively got up the deed, with the object of protecting the properties of P.N. Pogose.”  The courts decided that it was highly unlikely that Eugene’s parents didn’t know of Pogose’s financial woes and were colluding to try and minimise any repayments.
Graphic showing the cousin connection between Joakim Gregory Nicholas Pogose and Nicholas Peter Pogose
 The courts were simply not having any of the arguments put before them, and concluded: “… at the time when Mr. Pogose was hopelessly in debt, he contracted a marriage, in consideration of which he settled whatever property he had upon his wife and children, subject to his maintenance, and a debt which had previously been charged on the property in dispute. The circumstances under which the deed was executed, as well as the nature of the transaction, tend to show that the conveyance was made with a view to screen the property from the creditors.” The Court went on: “…before the marriage between Mr and Mrs Pogose, they had been related to each other, and it is probably that Mrs. Pogose and her parents were aware of the insolvent state of Mr. Pogose, when the conveyance was executed………..The fact that Mr. Pogose conveyed all his property charging it with his maintenance and the payment of the mortgage debt only, in consideration of his marriage to Mrs. Manook, who did not in return advance any sum to, or place any property at the dispose of Mr. Pogose, clearly tends to show that the settlement was made under the cloak of marriage with a view to defraud creditors.”

The court described Mr. Pogose and that of his family: “…Mr. Peter Nicholas Pogose, against whom the decree has been obtained, was the son of Mr. Nicholas Petroos Pogose, who is now dead. The latter was once a gentleman of very large property; but he became hopelessly and notoriously insolvent, and his property was assigned to trustees for the benefit of his creditors.  The first witness for the plaintiff, who has been in the service of the Pogose family as mohurir since the year 1841, described the property of Mr. Pogose’s father as worth seven or eight lacs of rupees, whilst his debts were upwards of twelve lacs.

Simplified chart showing Peter Nicholas Pogose and Eugene Manook as 2nd cousins and husband and wife
 The plaintiff was a second cousin of her husband, and the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Carlo (sic) Johannes Manook.  The plaintiff at the time of the marriage was sixteen years of age; and we are told by her parents that the proposals for the marriage took place in 1876, about a year before the marriage. Mr. Pogose had a one-seventh share of his mother’s property, which consisted of an 8-anna share in an estate in Mymensingh, and in four other smaller properties in Backergunge.  There was no honest reason, so far as we can see, why Mr. Pogose should have so completely denuded himself [financially]; and it does not appear that Mrs. Pogose brought anything whatever into the settlement.

We entirely agree with the Courts below that the manifest object of this transaction was to defraud Mr. Pogose’s creditors.

At the time of his marriage, Mr. Pogose still owed the Bank upwards of Rs 10,000, he owed his solicitors Rs, 4,000; and there  is evidence of three other Small Cause Court decrees being out against him, which were taken at the hearing before us to amount to Rs 3,000.  He therefore owed at least Rs 17,000; and it is possible, of course, that his debts may have been very much larger.”

Peter Pogose inherited nothing from his insolvent father, but rather his mother. Desperate times call for desperate measures, but his plan was never going to work.

“It must be borne in mind, that the Manooks were nearly [closely] related to the Pogose family.  They must have known perfectly well, what was notorious through the country at the time, that Mr. Pogose’s father, who was once a man of fortune, had become hopelessly insolvent.  Mr. Manook could hardly under such circumstances have allowed his daughter to marry Mr. Pogose without ascertaining his pecuniary position. And considering that Mr. Pogose’s Babus were perfectly aware of his indebtedness, it seems impossible to suppose that Mr. Manook should not have known this.

Then the extraordinary character of the settlement itself appears to us a clear indication of fraud.

Then, what was the value of the property settled? His father had died hopelessly insolvent. [Since the marriage] he has ever since managed the property and been in receipt of the rents and profits of it, through his brother, Mr. Carr Pogose.  So soon as Mr. Pogose had paid the Bank Rs, 2,000 in February 1878, he at once went off to England with Mrs. Pogose, and so far as appears, he has been there ever since”

In addition, the Court observed: “Further evidence indicated that Mrs. Pogose returned to Dacca after a year in England, only to go back to England again, Mr. Pogose never having set foot back in India[4] after the court case and both of them NEVER having made a personal appearance during any part of the hearing.”

Their appeal was dismissed and Mr. and Mrs. Peter Nicholas Pogose were found guilty of fraud.

After the court case, and by 1883 he had moved his family to England, their next child, Lily was born in Paddington in March of that year.

Another child, Gladys was born in India in April 1884, but the peripatetic lifestyle of Peter and Eugene was such that Gladys was baptised in London in November of that year. 

Two further children were born in England; Weenie in 1886 and Kate in 1887.
Whilst Eugene had 7 young children to look after ranging from 11 years to a new born baby, Peter once again got himself into trouble in 1887.

This time, he found himself in court charged with fraud and perjury.  The newspapers reported the case over several days and it would appear he had changed his name slightly, to perhaps put off the scent from India. In England he was Peter Nicholas Thaddeus Pogose, a law student, but no record can be found for him passing any law examinations.  In the Shrewsbury Conspiracy Case, the courts found him guilty and he was sent to prison for four months hard labour. In the Staffordshire Chronicle[5] it was reported that “..he had begun life as a ‘law student’, but had taken to bill dealing……” One newspaper did report a whiff of his previous bankruptcy[6] but did not dwell on it, preferring to report on the current case, rather than what had happened in the past.

Reinventing himself for a second time because of his fraudulent way and trying to put Dacca into a dim and distant past, he turned to the United States, putting miles and years between him and his fall from grace in Bangladesh.  He found respectability - eventually. It is unclear exactly when he arrived in the USA, but it is thought that once he had served his prison term, he left England to seek another new start, his wife and children joined him there in 1890.

The last two offspring of Peter and Eugene were born in New York; Leslie in 1895 and Olivette in 1898.

Eugene Pogose nee Manook.
Portrait from a passport application.

He became a travelling salesman for ink and printing products. Working for the Jaenecke Printing Co[7]., in New Jersey, he regularly travelled around the US and by all accounts, was well liked and respected.

The Eagle newspaper in Texas noted on 23rd July 1912:

“N.P. Pogose of New York State spent last night and today in Bryan. He is travelling salesman for Jaenecke Printing Ink Co., and has been travelling for twenty-nine years. We find him a very agreeable old gentleman and hope he will make Bryan often.”

He must have been doing very well for himself because he listed in the Classified Ads of “The Record” in 1915 a New Jersey paper, that he had a six roomed flat with “bath and all improvements” to let, as well as a large store and office[8]. However in the same newspaper in May 1916 Nicholas was found guilty and fine $50 with costs of $18.40 for maintaining a disorderly house and a gambling den.[9]

Descendants of Peter and Eugenie’s children all now live in the USA. Peter passed away in May 1925 in New York, Eugenie passed away in December 1949 also in New York. A long way from the family lands and Zamindari of Dacca, they are buried together in Rockland Cemetery, New Jersey.



[1] ‘The Indian Mirror’ of 28th November 1875
[2] Nicholas Peter Pogose is often incorrectly attributed as the founder of the Pogose School. He was not. It was his cousin, Joakim Gregory Nicholas Pogose, also known as "Nicky" who founded the school. Nicholas can be found listed as the Secretary at the school rather than the founder and headmaster. See Bengal Directory 1875 for entry. 
Nicholas Peter Pogose lost his father, Peter Nicholas Pogose at the age of 12. Nicholas’s mother Elizabeth re-married in 1842 a year after her husband’s death to Deare John Christian the son of a Jewish Polish immigrant. Evidence of Nicholas Peter Pogose being in early education at the time of the founding of the Pogose School lends additional weight that he could not have started the Pogose School.  This can be seen in the “General Report on Public Instruction in the Lower Provinces of the Bengal Presidency for 1845-46” where Nicholas Peter Pogose is noted as having obtained a ‘junior scholarship’ at the Dacca College aged 15 in June 1846. The report notes that some students in this school continued education there until they were in their early 20’s. Certainly, Nicholas Peter Pogose would not have been equipped nor experienced enough between the ages of 15 and 17 to create the Pogose School by June 1848 when he would have been just 5 months shy of his 18th birthday. Furthermore, Nicholas Peter Pogose spent a great deal of his early adult years fighting debtors and bankruptcy and was never as successful as his cousin Joakim.

[3] See family tree below for a better understanding of this branch of the Pogose stem
[4] This couldn’t have been the case, because their first three children, Nicholas, Eva and Richard  were all born in India between 1878 and 1881.
[5] 27th November 1887 P.6
[6] He had a County Court Judgement against him dated 9 January 1882 for £17-16s-2d, at today’s values that is approximately £1,700. (see “Extracts from the Register of County Courts” Commercial Gazette 2 February 1882). The address for him at the time was given as Rose Lawn, Catford Bridge, London.
In January 1883 he was declared bankrupt, and Trustees Robert Lindsay and Sidney Smith were appointed to oversee the property and debts of Pogose, his address at the declaration of bankruptcy was 2 Roseford Terrace, Shepherds Bush, London.(See London Gazette 27 February 1883 P.1170). By July 1885, his long-suffering wife, Eugenie appears to have entered into a “Bill of Sale Agreement” with a Thomas Bromwich for the sum of £150 (Today’s value would be around £15,000). She is described as ‘wife of Peter Nicholas Pogose of 10 Wharton Road, Addison Park, London’. By putting the debt in her name, was this a case of Eugenie being used once more by her husband to try and get himself out of trouble, just the same way it was disclosed in the Court Case in India?
[7] The Tampa Tribune, 30 October 1906
[8] The Record, Hackensack New Jersey 25th April 1915 P.7
[9] The Record, Hackensack New Jersey 20th May 1916. P.1

Tuesday, 9 April 2019

1911 Census for Armenians in Calcutta

I always like discovering "new" snippets of information regarding Armenians in India. Recently, whilst browsing Alien documents at the NA Kew I found this small but important gem.

A British Government official confirming that there were 815 Armenians in Calcutta at the time of the British 1911 Census.

1911 Census for Armenians in Calcutta


Just take a moment. This has NEVER been released before. Analysis of the 1911 Census in India does not show Armenians as a separate group (unlike Parsi's who are listed separately) but rather they are part of the "Christian" group analysis.

This is a significant statistical find for the Armenian population of Calcutta and it is brought to your attention here first.

All I need to do now is find the actual Census returns, and we're laughing 😊